Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel
Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel chose the path of a career officer soon after gaining his school-leaving certificate in 1904. He served as a general staff officer in the First World War and was accepted into the Reichswehr. His friendship with Ludwig Beck dated from the beginning of the 1930s. The Blomberg-Fritsch affair and the Sudeten crisis in 1938 intensified Stülpnagel’s feeling of alienation from the National Socialist regime. He participated in the military opposition’s first plans for a coup, which were abandoned after the Munich Agreement in the fall of 1938. In March 1942 Stülpnagel was appointed military commander in France. From here he supported the coup preparations in Berlin with his adjutant, Cäsar von Hofacker. On July 20, 1944 the area under Stülpnagel’s command was the only place where all the conspirators’ plans for the day of the coup were successfully implemented. When it became clear that the attempt to kill Hitler had failed, Stülpnagel tried to commit suicide, seriously wounding himself. He was subsequently arrested by the Gestapo. Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel was sentenced to death by the People’s Court on August 30, 1944 and murdered the same day in Berlin-Plötzensee.